A prospective study of 746 children sedated in the emergency department with iv or im ketamine revealed 2.1% may have experienced ’emergence delirium’ although the authors concede this was difficult to define. In contrast, 291 (38%) reported pleasant altered perceptions. Follow up revealed at least one nightmare in the following weeks in 3.4% of patients, which may be well under the rate reported in the normal unsedated paediatric population.
What is the nature of the emergence phenomenon when using intravenous or intramuscular ketamine for paediatric procedural sedation?
Emerg Med Australas. 2009 Aug;21(4):315-22