Data on patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury from the San Diego Trauma Registry were analysed using modified TRISS methodology to determine predicted survival, from which an observed-predicted survival differential (OPSD) was calculated. The mean OPSD was calculated as the primary outcome for the following comparisons: intubated versus nonintubated, air versus ground transport, eucapnia (PCO2 30–50 mm Hg) versus noneucapnia, and hypoxemia (PO<90 mm Hg) versus nonhypoxemia. Of note in this region is that ground EMS staff intubate without drugs, whereas air medical services use rapid sequence intubation with suxamethonium plus either etomidate or midazolam.
The rationale behind this methodology was to eliminate the possible selection bias present in previous studies linking pre-hospital intubation with mortality (sicker patients are able to be intubated without drugs).
A total of 9,018 TBI patients had complete data to allow calculation of probability of survival using TRISS. A total of 16.7% of patients were intubated in the field; 49.6% of these were transported by air medical providers. Patients undergoing prehospital intubation, transported by ground, with arrival eucapnia, and without arrival hypoxemia had higher mean OPSD values.
Intubated patients were more likely to be “unexpected survivors” and live to hospital discharge despite low predicted survival values; patients transported by air medical personnel had higher OPSD values and had a higher proportion of unexpected survivors. No statistically significant differences were observed between air- and ground-transported patients with regard to arrival PCO2 values arrival PO2 values.
Prehospital Airway and Ventilation Management: A Trauma Score and Injury Severity Score-Based Analysis
J Trauma. 2010 Aug;69(2):294-301